how to reference

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Article ID: 55
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Posted: Sun 05 Jun 2016
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Original Article Source: quensland university
The “Harvard style” is a generic author-date style for citing and referencing information in assignments and
publications.  There are many styles which follow the author-date convention, including the American
Psychological Association (APA) and the Chicago Manual of Style.  This guide is based on an Australian
style manual (AGPS style) now revised by Snooks & Co, 2002.
Note:  Before you create your list of references, check with your lecturer or tutor for the
bibliographic style preferred by the School.  There may be differences in the style
recommended by the School.
What is referencing?
Referencing is a standardised way of acknowledging the sources of information and ideas that you have used
in your document.
Why reference?
Referencing is important to avoid plagiarism, to verify quotations and to enable readers to follow up what
you have written and locate the cited author’s work.
Steps in referencing
•  Keep a record of the full bibliographic details and relevant page numbers of all the sources
from which information is taken.  
•  Insert brief citations at the appropriate places in the text of your document.
•  Compile a reference list at the end of the document that includes full details of all references
In-text citations
•  In an author-date style, in-text citations usually require the name of the author(s) and the
year of publication.  
•  A page number is included if you have a direct quote, paraphrase a passage or you want to
direct the reader to a specific page. Page numbers may also be included if the you are referring to a
long work and the page numbers might be useful to the reader.
How to create a reference list/bibliography
•  A reference list contains only the books, articles, and web pages etc that are cited in the text
of the document.  A bibliography includes all sources consulted for background or further reading.
•  A reference list is arranged alphabetically by author. If an item has no author, it is cited by
title, and included in the alphabetical list using the first significant word of the title.
•  If you have more than one item with the same author, list the items chronologically, starting
with the earliest publication.  
•  Each reference appears on a new line.
•  There is no indentation of the references.
•  There is no numbering of the references.


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